Quality of Service (QoS) in LTE

Background: Why we need QoS ? 

There are premium subscribers who always want to have better user experience on their 4G LTE device. These users are willing to pay more for high bandwidth and better network access on their devices. Not only the subscribers but some services itself need better priority handling in the network (e.g. VoIP call). To be able to full fill this, QOS plays the key role. QOS defines priorities for certain customers / services during the time of high congestion in the network

3GPP definition for QoS

In LTE Network QoS is implemented between UE and PDN Gateway and is applied to a set of bearers. 'Bearer' is basically a virtual concept and is a set of network configuration to provide special treatment to set of traffic e.g. VoIP packets are prioritized by network compared to web browser traffic.
In LTE, QoS is applied on Radio bearer, S1 bearer and S5/S8 bearer, collectively called as EPS bearer as shown in figure below.




In order to comprehend the concept of QoS , we must understand the bearer types and properties associated with each bearer through hierarchical chart as shown below. First there are two types of Bearer, i.e. Dedicated bearer and Default bearer. There is  at-least one default bearer established when UE is attached to LTE network while dedicated bearer is always established when there is need to provide QoS to specific service (like VoIP, video etc). Please go through the article Default and Dedicated Bearer which hopefully will help to explain the concept in more detail.



Dedicated bearer can be subdivided into Non-GBR and GBR types. 
GBR provides guaranteed bit rate and is associated with parameters like GBR and MBR
- GBR: The minimum guaranteed bit rate per EPS bearer. Specified independently for uplink and downlink
- MBR: The maximum guaranteed bit rate per EPS bearer. Specified independently for uplink and downlink

On the other hand, Non-GBR bearer does not provide guaranteed bit rate and has parameter like A- AMBR and UE- AMBR

- A-AMBR: APN Aggregate maximum bit rate is the maximum allowed total non-GBR throughput to specific APN. It is specified interdependently for uplink an downlink 
- UE -AMBR: UE Aggregate maximum bit rate is the maximum allowed total non-GBR throughput among all APN to a specific UE

As you can see, the default bearer can only be non-GBR type. Some other  important terms associated with each bearer type are discussed below:

- ARP: Allocation and retention priority is basically used for deciding whether new bearer modification or establishment request should be accepted considering the current resource situation.
- TFT: Traffic flow template is always associated with dedicated bearer and while default bearer may or may not have TFT. As mentioned earlier, dedicated bearer provides QoS to special service or application and TFT defines rules so that UE and Network knows which IP packet should be sent on particular dedicated bearer. It usually has rules on the basis of IP packet destination/source or protocol used.

L-EBI: It stands for Linked EPS bearer ID. As I discussed in previous article about dedicated and default bearer, we know that each dedicated bearer is always linked to one of default bearers. L-EBI tells Dedicated bearer which default bearer it is attached to. 

IP Address/ PDN: Each default bearer is attached to some PDN network and has its own IP address while dedicated bearer does not need this since it is linked to default bearer.

You can also see one other parameter associated with all bearers i.e. QoS class of identifier (QCI).This parameter basically defines IP level packets characteristics as shown below





EXAMPLE
Let me try to explain here again with the same example I gave in Default and Dedicated Bearer section

Usually LTE networks with VoLTE implementations have two default and one dedicated bearer

Default bearer 1: Used for signaling messages (sip signaling) related to IMS network. It uses qci 5
Dedicated bearer: Used for VoLTE VoIP traffic. It uses qci 1 and is linked to default bearer 1
Default bearer 2: Used for all other smartphone traffic (video, chat, email, browser etc), assuming qci 9 is used here



This means that Default bearer 1 is associated with IMS PDN and has specific IP address. It has throughput limitations defined in terms of A-AMBR and UE-AMBR. Since it has qci 5 which means that its IP packets has the highest priority over other IP packets and maximum delay as 100ms between UE and PGW with packet loss percentage up to 10-6

Default bearer 2 is associated with internet PDN and has specific IP. It has throughput limitations defined in terms of A-AMBR and UE-AMBR as well. Since it has qci 9 which means that its IP packets has the lowest priority over other IP packets and maximum delay possible as 300ms between UE and PGW with packet loss percentage up to 10-6

Dedicated bearer will be linked to Default bearer 1 with L-EBI and it also has TFT which basically defines which IP packets should be allowed to travel on this bearer. It has throughput limitations defined in terms of MBR and GBR. Since it is using QCI 1, the IP packets traveling on this bearer have the second highest priority. The maximum delay possible to IP packets on this bearer is 100 ms and the percentage of packet loss will be under 10-2






82 comments:

  1. Please visit website www.telecomtube.com
    for telecom jobs. Thanks

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks to dr.ezomo for his good work I never believe that HIV has cure, I was HIV positive over 3 year now before I came across a comment about how
      dr.ezomo cure HIV and herpes disease but when I saw it i have it in mind
      that he cant cure HIV I just decided to give it a try I contact him that
      night luckily to me he replied me, but I dont believe him I thought it was
      a scam but I still hold on to see the work of Dr ezomo if he is saying the
      truth he ask for some details about me i gave him all he needed and I
      waited to see his reply to my problem after all, he told me to go for check
      up and I went for HIV test I cant believe I was negative,am so happy and
      grateful to God for using Dr ezomo to cure me, that is the reason why i
      decided to write this wonderful testimony of our i was cured, i recommend
      Dr ezomo to you all around the world,contact him on his Email dr.ezomorootandherbals@gmail.com or you can also reach him through WhatsApp number+2349069171173
      dr.ezomo for helping me at this young age if you need help contact,
      He can also cure so many sickness
      {1}HIV And AIDS
      {2}Diabetes
      {3}Epilepsy
      {4} Blood Cancer
      {5} HPV
      {6} ALS
      {7}herpes

      Delete
  2. Is APN-AMBR "APN Aggregate maximum bit rate is the maximum allowed total non-GBR throughput to specific APN" described per UE?

    ReplyDelete
  3. How do the GBR and MBR measured? Some documents said that it is defined as "the number of bits sent during a period / the duration of the period". How long is the period?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. It is a given parameter to eNB, for example as kbps (kilobits per second) on end user layer. For the QCI1 for VoLTE it is usually around 30-50 kbps per UE.

      Delete
    2. What about qci2 how much data speed minimum required for video call

      Delete
    3. What about qci2 how much data speed minimum required for video call

      Delete
  4. Nice Articles Thanks For Sharing, Please visit website http://www.bremarnetworking.com/

    ReplyDelete
  5. Please tell me your contact number for the farder dacation

    ReplyDelete
  6. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Thanks for sharing here
    I am very happy to read your review
    I hope you give a useful topic for everyone
    Vimax
    Vimax Asli
    Pengiriman Vimax
    Testimonials Vimax
    Cara Pemesanan Vimax
    Tentang Kami Agen Vimax Indonesia

    ReplyDelete
  8. Hi Adnan Basir,

    I want information in LTE(4G),can you please explain about Agilent T4110S, PIXIT and PICS configuration and uses.

    ReplyDelete
  9. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Hi , I want to do research on QoS in LTE network. Can anyone suggest me which simulator will be easy for this?

    ReplyDelete
  11. A nice article indeed. Thanks for sharing.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Informative post. I am happy that I found your post while searching for awesome news and idea. Thanks! It is very useful and interesting website.

    Business Grade VoIP | Telco Services Australia

    ReplyDelete


  13. I also want to recommend one another Expert in this field at New York who provide the Cisco Training Course with advanced module .

    QOS Networking

    ReplyDelete
  14. Videocon Group's Punjab telecom arm, Quadrant Televentures, today received permit from the DoT to launch pan-India Internet services.gprs plans rate

    ReplyDelete
  15. Videocon Group's Punjab telecom arm, Quadrant Televentures, today received permit from the DoT to launch pan-India Internet services. gprs plans rate

    ReplyDelete
  16. It is a bit complicated with me to understand but however I like your articles, thanks for give sharing this to all together.
    Regards - Blot Tutorial Supporter

    ReplyDelete
  17. I thinks its very effective & important post i want to more information.
    live chat

    ReplyDelete
  18. Hi Adnan

    When UE attaches to LTE-Network, a default EPS-bearer is created. Suppose the User wants to make a VoLTE call, so QCI=1 and a dedicated EPS-bearer will be created and this dedicated EPS-bearer will be attached to default EPS bearer created before. Now the User wants to play Real Time Gaming, its QCI=3, so another dedicated EPS-bearer needs to be created. My questions is, which default EPS-bearer this new dedicated EPS bearer will be attached ?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Farhan,
      It depends on your bearer configuration. It can be attached even to same default EPS-bearer if configured or to some other default bearer

      Delete
    2. Hi Farhan/Adnan,
      Does UE know GBR/MBR limit? Are these values communicated to UE during dedicated bearer creation?
      Consider following scenario:
      1. Establish Default Bearer "AMBR = 3 Mbps".
      2. Establish Dedicated bearer with following characteristics "UL MBR = UL GBR = 1 Mbps".
      3. Pump UL data 10 Mbps on both bearers.
      My scheduler gives grants in the form of DCI0 for both bearers.
      Even my scheduler is giving grants for default bearer but UE is sending data for dedicated bearer.
      Thus crossing the limit.
      Is this issue with UE? or some other mechanism need to be implemented to prevent such case.?

      Delete
  19. Hello all to my viewers I never believe that spell can cure someone without the person being present in the vicinity.I once had HIV;I saw different testimonies on how DR.Patrick cured their HIV with his herbal medicine.Since I had this disease,I decided to contact him,so that I can get cured too.I emailed him telling him my problems,he told me that all my problems are over,but he will need some items in which he will use in preparing a cure for me. I sent him the money via Western Union Money Transfer After preparing the cure he sent it via courier delivery services,I paid for the delivery also I paid a legal practitioner,then I got my parcel,it was a portion,I drank it.After drinking the portion he asked me to go for check-up 45 minutes later,which I did,when I did the test I was tested HIV negative,he has all the cure to all manner of diseases like ATC,..HIV,..Cancer,..HPV..Syphilis,..Hepatitis B..types of Cancer,Gonorrhea, LOW SPERM... quickly I contacted DR.Patrick and told him what happened he congratulated me. I am very happy for his good deeds upon my life. He’s the best of all, kindly contact him via email deadly.diseases cure busyspellhome@gmail.com or call +2347061824880. he can also help you to bring your lover back

    ReplyDelete
  20. Thank you for sharing such informative article details with the users. For a secured telecom connection you can search http://premiumratenumbers.biz/

    ReplyDelete
  21. Thanks for nice informative article very much used for my thesis, thank you again

    Online Recharge Plans, Mobile Prepaid Plans, Packs, Offers

    ReplyDelete
  22. I want to share this wonderful testimony to the people who are in the same problem that i was before i meant Dr Ben. i was living with HIV for the past 2 years, just last month as i was browsing on the internet about this deadly disease, i saw a testimony of somebody called Edwards Simone, testifying of how she was cured from HIV by Great Dr Ben and i decided to also email this man and tell him about my problem and as i did that, he told me to send him some of my personal details which i did and he prepared me a portion which i took and then he told me to wait for one week. After one week he told me to go for another HIV test, which i did and to my greatest suppress i was confirmed negative. all thanks be to Dr Ben and if you know that you are in this same problem or other deadly disease email him now on( drbenharbalhome@gmail.com ) or contact him now on whatsaap:+22893464014. You can get me on email: soniastevens1995@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  23. LuckyPoker13.com | Situs BandarQ | Situs Poker | Situs DominoQQ | AduQ | BandarQ Online | Sakong Online |
    100% PLAYER Vs PLAYER

    BONUS :
    *** BONUS TO 0.5% Di BAGIKAN 2x DALAM SEMINGGU ***
    *** BONUS REFF 20% ***
    *** EXTRA JACKPOT ***

    7 GAMES DALAM 1 ID
    - AduQ
    - Bandar Poker
    - BandarQ
    - Capsa Susun
    - Domino99
    - POKER
    - SAKONG

    Contact Us :
    - Website : www.Luckypoker.com
    - BBM : D883E18E
    - WA : +855-7093-1285
    - Line : LuckyPoker13
    - WeChat : LuckyPoker13
    - YM : Lucky.Poker13@Yahoo.com


    http://haloindonesiapagi.blogspot.com
    http://lucky13unik.blogspot.com
    http://luckypoker13.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  24. I am Victor James by name .. I never thought that I will live on earth before the year runs out. I have been suffering from a deadly disease (HIV) for the past 4 years now; I had spent a lot of money going from one places to another, from churches to churches, hospitals have been my every day residence. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until last Month, I was searching through the internet, I saw a testimony on how DR. Aaron Serwaa helped someone in curing her HIV disease, quickly I copied his email which is (draaronserwaa@gmail.com). I spoke to him, he asked me to do some certain things which I did, he told me that he is going to provide the herbal to me, which he did, then he asked me to go for medical checkup after some days after using the herbal cure, I was free from the deadly disease, he only asked me to post the testimony through the whole world, faithfully am doing it now, please brothers and sisters, he is great, I owe him in my life. if you are having a similar problems just email him on (draaronserwaa@gmail.com) or simply whatsapp him on: +233200801737. He can also cure disease like Cancer, Diabeties, Herpes. Etc. You can reach me via my Email: jv0097341@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  25. Hello,
    I have a question here as I want to know in which message I can find QCI,AMBR,UE-AMBR in case of performing http or http browsing as I know we are using default bearer here,5 shown in RRC reconfiguration meassage but I cant find above items
    Could you please advise?
    thanks

    ReplyDelete
  26. Very useful post with lots of information. This is very important to know.Thanks a lot for sharing.regards,Call Center Jobs for Fresher’s in Hyderabad.

    ReplyDelete
  27. Hello!
    I think that Keep posting more informative articles like these one.
    These are very good articles to visit...

    gclub casino
    goldenslot casino
    goldenslot

    ReplyDelete
  28. Excellent ! I am truly impressed that there is so much about this subject that has been revealed and you did it so nicely.
    CCNA Training in Chennai

    ReplyDelete
  29. I found it interesting how your notes only focus on website..
    doctor strange (2016)

    ReplyDelete
  30. good article http://www.mgmdomino.com/

    ReplyDelete
  31. Cricket’s main selling point when it comes to their wireless data services is their high area coverage, especially since they were acquired by AT&T and continue to operate with the addition of the telecom giant’s wide-reaching network. Cricket is a small player, but their offering of an unlimited internet plan, Cricket APN settings | Cricket Wireless APN Settings for Android & iPhone, riding on their coverage asset, makes it very attractive to many consumers.

    ReplyDelete
  32. Anda pecinta Judi Online??, ingin mendapatkan kemenangan yang besar dengan modal 25rb saja??, dan ingin mendapatkan jackpot serta bonus yang besar setiap harinya??, maka daftarkan diri anda disalah satu situs judi online yang sudah terpercaya di Indonesia.

    1 mandiridomino.net
    2. qqkompas.net
    3. dadudomino.com
    4. dewadominoqq.net
    5. dewajudiqq.net
    6. vipmandiriqq.net
    7. bandarjudiqq.org
    8. pemainbandarq,info

    Untuk semua situs judi online di atas menawarkan permainan DominoQQ, BandarQ, Poker Online, Capsa Susun, Bandar Poker, Sakong Online

    Dan jika anda ingin melakukan permainan Judi Casino, Judi Togel dan Judi Bola, maka bisa mengunjungi website dibawah ini.

    1. indototo88.net
    2. mastercasino88.com

    ReplyDelete
  33. very interesting content of this article give inspiration thanks judi poker

    ReplyDelete
  34. Thank you The information you submit is very useful, waiting for the next update ya friend, Greetings Success :)
    taruhan judi poker online terpercaya

    ReplyDelete
  35. many articles provide important and inspiring information thanks judi poker

    ReplyDelete
  36. very interesting content of this article give inspiration thanks bandar judi poker online yang paling aman

    ReplyDelete
  37. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  38. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  39. Thanks, Learned a lot of new things from your post! Good creation and HATS OFF to the creativity of your mind.
    Very interesting and useful blog!

    CCNA training in Gurgaon


    ReplyDelete
  40. I Was Diagnosed With Herpes 8 Year Ago I lived In Pain, With The Knowledge That I Wasn't Going To Ever Be Well Again I Contacted So Many Herbal Doctors And Also Visited Hospitals All In Vain My Condition Never Got Better I Was Determined To Get Cured, So One Day As I Was Browsing True The Internet I Saw A Past About This Particular Woman (Wilshere Stancy) Posted On How Dr IBHAZE Saved Her From The Virus With Herbal Medicine I Decided To Contact Dr IBHAZE On His Email Address: dribhazeherbalhealingcentre@gmail.Com and also his whatsapp +2348136354191 We Spoke On The Issue I Told Him All That I Went Through And He Told Me Not To Worry That Everything Will Be Fine Again So He Prepared The Medicine And Sent It To Me And Told Me On How To Use It,After 2 Weeks Of Usage I Went To See Doctor For Test ,Then The Result Was Negative,Am The Happiest Woman On Earth Today..Thanks To Dr IBHAZE God Bless You, You Can Also Reach Him With This Details;
    Email: dribhazeherbalhealingcentre@gmail.com
    webstite: dribhazeherbalhealingcentre.webs.com
    Call +2348136354191

    He also cure these virus
    {1}HIV And AIDS
    {2}Diabetes
    {3}Epilepsy
    {4} Blood Cancer
    {5} HPV
    {6} ALS
    {7} Hepatitis
    {8} Vitiligo

    ReplyDelete
  41. is very fond of this article because it gives a lot of
    inspiration thanks bandar poker online indonesia

    ReplyDelete
  42. is very fond of this article because it gives a lot of inspiration thanks poker online

    ReplyDelete
  43. very interesting content of this article give inspiration thanks taruhan judi poker online terpercaya

    ReplyDelete
  44. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    http://www.aladinqq.org/

    ReplyDelete
  45. many articles provide important and inspiring information thanks agen judi poker online terpercaya di indonesia

    ReplyDelete
  46. very interesting content of this article give inspiration thanks poker online

    ReplyDelete
  47. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    poker88

    ReplyDelete


  48. Mobility| Austere Technologies

    REALLY VERY EXCELLENT INFORMATION. THIS BLOG IMFORMATION VERY GOOD AND WE ALSO PROVIDING BEST SERVICES.

    ReplyDelete
  49. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    http://www.qqaladin.com/

    ReplyDelete
  50. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    dewa poker

    ReplyDelete
  51. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  52. thank you for the blog. I in reality admire your time and effort for posting this blog this definitely helped me lots
    lg tv 24 inch price in kenya

    ReplyDelete
  53. Disini Tempatnya Para Pemain Poker Beraksi!!
    http://www.qqaladin.com/

    ReplyDelete
  54. Your work here on this blog has been choice from day 1. You've been continously giving astonishing articles to all of us to peruse and I simply trust that you prop it up on later on too. Here's to you!

    công ty s?n xu?t tvc qu?ng cáo

    ReplyDelete
  55. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    poker88

    ReplyDelete
  56. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    poker online

    ReplyDelete


  57. Very good informative article. Thanks for sharing such nice article, keep on up dating such good articles.
    Austere Technologies |Internet Of Things

    ReplyDelete
  58. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    domino qiu qiu

    ReplyDelete
  59. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    poker88

    ReplyDelete
  60. amazing content of this article inspiring many thanks dewa poker

    ReplyDelete